What is the Circular Economy

The circular economy represents a comprehensive approach to addressing pressing global challenges, including climate change, biodiversity loss, waste, and pollution. It signifies a profound shift in how our world produces and consumes goods and services. Embracing this model involves fundamentally restructuring our economic systems, primarily focusing on minimizing waste and pollution while prolonging the lifespan of products and materials.

The concept of a circular economy traces its origins back to waste management, particularly as nations recognized the necessity of implementing economy-wide measures to shift away from waste disposal and management and toward waste avoidance and prevention. Japan pioneered this shift in 2000 by introducing the Basic Law for Establishing a Recycling-Oriented Society. Similarly, in 2008, the People’s Republic of China enacted its Circular Economy Promotion Law, defining the circular economy as a comprehensive term encompassing activities that reduce, reuse, and recycle throughout the production, distribution, and consumption processes. Essentially, the circular economy began as an agenda for mainstreaming and scaling up previously established and proven 3R practices—Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle.

As the circular economy concept gained recognition throughout 2010, additional dimensions emerged. Firstly, there was a growing emphasis on the quality and origin of secondary materials and the associated technical and environmental risks. The circular economy concept also increased economic resilience, reducing dependence on primary materials, including critical minerals. Secondly, it became clear that waste couldn’t be entirely eliminated at its source (i.e., when products are discarded), but rather at its root cause (i.e., the design of products, services, and processes that influence waste generation throughout the product’s lifecycle). This realization led to a heightened focus on sectors and product value chains with high waste and resource intensity.

The European Union’s 2020 Circular Economy Action Plan incorporated these expanded perspectives with three core strategies:

  1. A sustainable product policy framework, influencing the influx of products and services into the economy;
  2. The transformation of waste-intensive product value chains, including electronics, vehicles, textiles, packaging, and plastics; and
  3. Strengthened waste policies to create functioning markets for secondary materials.

In 2021, the ASEAN region embraced the circular economy vision by adopting its Framework for Circular Economy for the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). This framework presents an aspirational definition:

“The circular economy is restorative, regenerative by design, and effectively uses materials and energy to retain their value. Competitiveness, efficiency, and resilience are at the heart of the circular economy.”

Strategic Goals

Through recycling and reusing, the circular economy presents an opportunity to safeguard our environment, optimize the utilization of precious natural resources, and catalyze the emergence of new industries, jobs, and capabilities. As it moves towards a circular economy, ASEAN strives to achieve a balance between three interdependent goals:

Resilient Economy

ASEAN can leapfrog resource-intensive development paths – which tend to be vulnerable to shocks – by adopting circular economy alternatives. Shaping circular economy that is resilient to climate change and resource constraints will minimise costs and risks over the long-term, ultimately benefiting ASEAN.

Resource Efficiency

ASEAN’s commitment to circular economy-based policies and innovations to attain resource efficiency will boost industries’ competitiveness in domestic and foreign markets, both regional and global. A strong regional ecosystem for eco-innovation is very important, to strengthen and support pioneering entrepreneurs and startups, not to mention investors and big corporates.

Sustainable Growth

Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) criteria is part of the growing international trend towards investment portfolios where profit goes hand in hand with sustainability. ASEAN has an opportunity to lead this global shift by becoming a hub for circular innovations and mobilising funds towards circular investments.

Circular Economy Knowledge

Assessment of the first-ever circular economy framework of Cambodia: Barriers, international opportunities and recommendations
The paper discusses the relevance of the Circular Economy (CE) as a solution for environmental challenges faced by various stakeholders in Cambodia, particularly in light of its reliance on resource…
TVET for the Circular Economy: Preparing the Workforce for the Circularity of Industries
The labour market information report (LMIR) by The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) of the Philippines offers insights into the demand and supply sides of the local and…
Making Circular Economy Work for Business and Industry
Insights: ASEAN Circular Economy Stakeholder Platform Webinar Series Background The ASEAN region is experiencing significant growth, with its member states advancing to higher income levels. This development, coupled with urbanization…
Towards a Unifying Framework for Business Action for the Circular Economy in ASEAN
This business engagement paper positions circular economy as an innovation and co-creation framework to break the dependence of products and services on the unsustainable use of natural resources which is…
Circular Economy Strategies in the ASEAN Region: A comparative study
The circular economy, or CE, is a sustainable development paradigm that minimises environmental impacts while promoting economic growth through resource efficiency, closed-loop systems, and waste reduction. As the detrimental effects…
Circular Economy Strategy and Action Plan | Kingdom of Cambodia
The circular Economy Strategy and Action Plan is the result of the collaboration between, the Department (DGE) of Green Economy of Secretariat General for Sustainable Development (GSSD), of National Council…
Circular Economy Strategy for Lao PDR
Lao PDR created a vision of a circular future that integrates economic growth with preserving the nation’s distinctive natural environment and culture. This necessitates a systems approach that goes beyond…
Conceptualizing the Circular Economy (Revisited): An Analysis of 221 Definitions
The circular economy (CE) concept has rapidly gained popularity among academics and professionals over the past ten years. Kirchherr et al. discovered that the CE idea is interpreted and applied…